DWP has released a written ministerial statement that affects the connection deadline for pensions dashboards.
Addition guidance will be published in due course.

 

Technical glossary

This glossary is intended to help you understand some of the technical terms used by the Pensions Dashboards Programme.

TermsDefinition
acceptance testingthe final stage in the testing lifecycle conducted by end users with the purpose of accepting or rejecting the system before release
actual resultthe system status or outcome after a test has been executed. An anomaly or deviation is when the actual results differ from the expected result
ad hoc testingunstructured testing: that is testing carried out informally without test cases or other written test instructions
alpha testingoperational testing conducted by potential users, customers, or an independent test team at the vendor’s site. Alpha testers should not be from the group involved in the development of the system, in order to maintain their objectivity. Alpha testing is sometimes used as acceptance testing by the vendor
anomalyany irregular software behaviour that deviates from expectations based on requirements specifications, design documents, standards etc. A good way to find anomalies is by testing the software
application programming interface (API)a set of programming code, which allows two applications to talk to each other
authorisation server the software that manages the authorisation process within the ecosystem
beta testingtest that comes after alpha tests and is performed by people outside of the organisation that built the system. Beta testing is especially valuable for finding usability flaws and configuration problems
big-bang integrationintegration testing strategy in which every component of a system is assembled and tested together; contrast with other integration testing strategies in which system components are integrated one at a time
black box testingtesting in which the test object is seen as a “black box” and the tester has no knowledge of its internal structure. The opposite of white box testing
bottom-up integrationan integration testing strategy in which you start integrating components from the lowest level of the system architecture. Other techniques are the big-bang integration and top-down integration
boundary value analysisa black box test design technique that tests input or output values that are on the edge of what is allowed or at the smallest incremental distance on either side of an edge. For example, an input field that accepts text between one and 10 characters has six boundary values: 0, 1, 2, 9, 10 and 11 characters
BS 7925-1a testing standards document containing a glossary of testing terms. BS stands for British Standard
BS 7925-2a testing standards document that describes the testing process, primarily focusing on component testing. BS stands for British Standard
bugthis represents a fault or a defect. The International Software Testing Qualifications Board (ISTQB) glossary explains that “…a human being can make an error (mistake), which produces a defect (fault, bug) in the program code, or in a document. If a defect in code is executed, the system may fail to do what it should do (or do something it shouldn’t), causing a failure. Defects in software, systems or documents may result in failures, but not all defects do so.”
computer-aided software testing (CAST)a general term for automated testing tools
central digital architecturewe use the term digital architecture to refer to the group of elements that make dashboards work. These include the ecosystem components that PDP is responsible for: the pension finder system, the consent and authorisation service, the identity service and the governance register
change control board (CCB)a group responsible for evaluating, prioritising, and approving/rejecting requested changes to an IT system
change requesta type of document describing a needed or desired change to the system
checklista simpler form of a test case, often merely a document with short test instructions (“one-liners”). An advantage of checklists is that they are easy to develop. A disadvantage is that they are less structured than test cases
clientthe part of an organisation that orders an IT system from the internal IT department or from an external supplier/vendor
capability maturity model integration (CMMI)a framework for improving process efficiency in systems development and maintenance
code coveragea generic term for analysis methods that measure the proportion of code in a system that is executed by testing. Expressed as a percentage, for example, 90% code coverage
code standarddescription of how a programming language should be used within an organisation
compilationthe activity of translating lines of code written in a human-readable programming language into machine code that can be executed by the computer
complianceformal testing against the central digital architecture platform to demonstrate that a data provider or dashboard supplier has successfully implemented API messaging standards including error and retry behaviour
componentthe smallest element of the system, such as a class or a DLL
component integration testinganother term for integration test
component testingtest level that evaluates the smallest elements of the system. Also known as unit test, program test and module test
compulsory onboardingbeginning in programme phase four, data providers will be compelled to connect to the ecosystem and make individuals’ pensions information available via dashboards in the order determined by the DWP regulations consistent with PDP standards
configuration managementroutines for version control of documents and software/program code, as well as managing multiple system release versions
configuration testinga test to confirm that the system works under different configurations of hardware and software, such as testing a website using different browsers
conformancethe internal testing phase a dashboard or data provider supplier performs, connected to the reference environments and ensuring they can evidence conformance to the API standards and are fit to proceed to formal testing
consent and authorisation servicepart of the central digital architecture. This component acts as the ecosystem trust anchor, operating the authorisation protocol and managing registration of software entities. It steps up authentication by handing off the user to the identity service when necessary and provides a user interface (UI), allowing the user to provide and manage their consents, define and manage a policy against each of their found pension identifiers and provide any self-asserted claims as part of the find process
consent user interface (consent UI)what individuals use to interact with the ecosystem, when they provide their consent and authorisation to locate their pensions
context-driven testingtesting which makes use of debugging techniques inspired by real-world usage conditions. It is a method of testing, which encourages testers to develop testing opportunities based on the specific details of any given situation
commercial off the shelf (COTS)commercial off the shelf: software that can be bought on the open market. Also called “packaged” software
dashboard provider (DB)the organisations that will develop front-end dashboards to connect to the PDP ecosystem. The Money and Pensions Service (MAPS) is required by the government to create a front-end dashboard and we anticipate that other organisations (authorised by the FCA) will also create dashboards
data provider (DP)data providers are the organisations that provide data to dashboards. This includes pension providers, schemes, trusts, third-party administrators and integrated service providers (ISPs)
debuggingthe process in which developers identify, diagnose, and fix errors found. See also bug and defect
decision tablea test design and requirements specification technique. A decision table describes the logical conditions and rules for a system. Testers use the table as the basis for creating test cases
defecta flaw in a component or system that can cause the component or system to fail to perform its required function. A defect, if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the component or system
defect reporta document used to report a defect in a component, system, or document. Also known as an incident report
deliverableany product that must be delivered to someone other than the author of the product. Examples of deliverables are documentation, code and the system
ecosystem / pensions dashboards ecosystemmultiple parties, technical services and governance need to be connected in what we are referring to as an ecosystem. This is made up of the supporting digital architecture, which allows dashboards to work, the dashboards themselves which individuals interact with, pension providers’ find and view interfaces, and the governance system which monitors the whole ecosystem
dynamic testingtesting performed while the system is running
end-to-end testingtesting used to test whether the performance of an application from start to finish conforms with the behaviour that is expected from it. This technique can be used to identify system dependencies and confirm the integrity of data transfer across different system components remains
entry criteriacriteria that must be met before you can initiate testing. An example is ensuring that the test cases and test plans are complete before testing can start
equivalence partitioninga test design technique based on the fact that data in a system is managed in classes, such as intervals. Because of this, you only need to test a single value in every equivalence class. For example, you can assume that a calculator performs all addition operations in the same way; so, if you test one addition operation, you have tested the entire equivalence class
errora human action that produces an incorrect result
error descriptionthe section of a defect report where the tester describes the test steps he/she performed, what the outcome was, what result he/she expected, and any additional information that will assist in troubleshooting
error guessingexperience-based test design technique where the tester develops test cases based on his/her skill and intuition, and experience with similar systems and technologies
executewhen a program is executing, it means that the program is running

when you execute or conduct a test case, you can also say that you are running the test case
exhaustive testinga test approach in which you test all possible inputs and outputs
exit criteriacriteria that must be fulfilled for testing to be considered complete, such as that all high-priority test cases are executed, and that no open high-priority defect remains. Also known as completion criteria
expected resulta description of the test object’s expected status or behaviour after the test steps are completed. Part of the test case
exploratory testinga test design technique based on the tester’s experience; the tester creates the tests while he/she gets to know the system and executes the tests
external suppliera supplier/vendor that doesn’t belong to the same organization as the client/buyer
extreme programmingan agile development methodology that emphasises the importance of pair programming, where two developers write program code together. The methodology also implies frequent deliveries and automated testing
factory acceptance testacceptance testing carried out at the supplier’s facility, as opposed to a site acceptance test, which is conducted at the client’s site
failuredeviation of the component or system under test from its expected result
formal reviewa review that proceeds according to a documented review process that may include, for example, review meetings, formal roles, required preparation steps, and goals. Inspection is an example of a formal review
functional integrationan integration testing strategy in which the system is integrated one function at a time. For example, all the components needed for the “search customer” function are put together and tested one by one
functional testingtesting of the system’s functionality and behaviour; the opposite of non-functional testing
grey-box testingtesting, which uses a combination of white box and black box testing techniques to carry out software debugging on a system, when the tester has limited knowledge of its code
governance registerpart of the central digital architecture. This component acts as the ecosystem trust root, managing and operating a private PKI, which provisions static trust by issuing cryptographic certificates to ecosystem participants allowing them to establish a connection with central digital architecture. It contains various registers of entities that have been onboarded onto the ecosystem and provides ecosystem monitoring and auditing capabilities that feed into the Operational Management Centre and Security Operations Centre
IEEE 829an international standard for test documentation published by the IEEE organisation. The full name of the standard is IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation. It includes templates for the test plan, various test reports, and handover documents
incidenta condition that is different from what is expected, such as a deviation from requirements or test cases
independent testinga type of testing in which testers’ responsibilities are divided up, in order to maintain their objectivity. One way to do this is by giving different roles the responsibility for various tests. You can use different sets of test cases to test the system from different points of view
identity service (IDS)part of the central digital architecture. This component assures a user’s identity to the confidence and assurance level specified by PDP and provides the users verified data attributes needed to find their pensions
informal reviewa review that isn’t based on a formal procedure
inspectionan example of a formal review technique
installation testa type of test meant to assess whether the system meets the requirements for installation and uninstallation. This could include verifying that the correct files are copied to the machine and that a shortcut is created in the application menu
integrationin the context of the PDP, this is the end to end integration of a data provider or dashboard provider, in compliance with the message standards
integration testinga test level meant to show that the system’s components work with one another. The goal is to find problems in interfaces and communication between components
internal supplierdeveloper that belongs to the same organisation as the client. The IT department is usually the internal supplier
international software testing qualifications board (ISTQB)responsible for international programs for testing certification
iterationa development cycle consisting of a number of phases, from formulation of requirements to delivery of part of an IT system. Common phases are analysis, design, development, and testing. The practice of working in iterations is called iterative development
ITWGintegration test working group
JUnita framework for testing Java applications, specifically designed for automated testing of Java components
load testinga type of performance testing conducted to evaluate the behaviour of a component or system with increasing load, eg numbers of concurrent users and/or numbers of transactions. Used to determine what load can be handled by the component or system
maintainabilitya measure of how easy a given piece of software code is to modify in order to correct defects, improve or add functionality
maintenanceactivities for managing a system after it has been released in order to correct defects or to improve or add functionality. Maintenance activities include requirements management, testing, development amongst others
regulatory frameworkthe standard for creating names for variables, functions, and other parts of a program. For example, strName, sName and Name are all technically valid names for a variable, but if you don’t adhere to one structure as the standard, maintenance will be very difficult
negative testinga type of testing intended to show that the system works well even if it is not used correctly. For example, if a user enters text in a numeric field, the system should not crash
non-functional testingtesting of non-functional aspects of the system, such as usability, reliability, maintainability, and performance
NUnitan open-source framework for automated testing of components in Microsoft .Net applications
onboardingconnecting a supplier end point to the central digital architecture platform for the purposes of test or live running as appropriate
open ID connect (OIDC)this is an identity layer, which sits on top of the OAuth 2.0 protocol. It allows users to securely sign in to an application
open sourcea form of licensing in which software is offered free of charge. Open-source software is frequently available via download from the internet
operational testingtests carried out when the system has been installed in the operational environment (or simulated operational environment) and is otherwise ready to go live. Intended to test operational aspects of the system eg recoverability, co-existence with other systems and resource consumption
outcomethe result after a test case has been executed
pair programminga software development approach where two developers sit together at one computer, while programming a new system. While one developer codes, the other makes comments and observations, and acts as a sounding board. The technique has been shown to lead to higher quality thanks to the continuous code review – bugs and errors are avoided because the team catches them as the code is written
pair testingtest approach where two people, eg two testers, a developer and a tester, or an end-user and a tester, work together to find defects. Typically, they share one computer and trade control of it while testing. One tester can act as observer when the other performs tests
protection API token (PAT)a long-lived authorisation token, representing a user’s consent at the consent and authorisation service. It is part of the UMA authorisation process and identifies the correct authorisation server to pension providers’ resource server
persisted claims token (PCT)this is part of the UMA authorisation process. A persisted claims token holds on to permissions collected during one authorisation process, so that users can access the system easily in future, without having to provide the same permissions again
public key infrastructure (PKI)a public key infrastructure allows the secure exchange of online data. It uses public and private cryptographic key pairs to unlock the information to authorised individuals
permission ticket / token (PMT)issuing permission tokens is an important part of the UMA authorisation process. Within the PDP ecosystem, the consent and authorisation service will issue a permission token to the data provider to release the pension information to the user’s dashboard, provided the user has given their consent to do so
pension provider find interface (PPFI)this is the means by which pension providers interact with the ecosystem, when they are receiving find data ie the instruction to look for a particular individual’s pension(s)
pension finder service (PFS)part of the central digital architecture. This component is orchestration middleware; it has no user interface. It is responsible for distributing find requests across the data provider endpoints and managing the low-level interactions to achieve message delivery to providers. It also manages traffic volumes and handles data provider endpoint failures, operating a cache of find requests, a time out process for each endpoint for requests and a back-off retry process to throttle traffic
pension identifier (PeI)term used to cover all separately identifiable pensions, in which some individual(s) may have an interest. It is the identifier of a pension, not in itself a statement of ownership. Its format is a text string in the form of a uniform resource name (URN) and provides a pointer to the pension asset. It is capable of being dereferenced by a pension dashboard and resolved into a URL, which provides the view endpoint which can serve the pension details associated with the PeI
pension providerspension providers are organisations that provide pensions to individuals in the UK. This includes pension providers and schemes and DWP (State Pension)
performance testinga test to evaluate whether the system meets performance requirements such as response time or transaction frequency
positive testinga test aimed to show that the test object works correctly in normal situations. For example, a test to show that the process of registering a new customer functions correctly when using valid test data
postconditionsenvironmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled after a test case or test run has been executed
pension providers’ view interface (PPVI)the means by which pension providers receive view requests from users at dashboards, check their authorisation at the consent and authorisation service, and if authorised return view data to dashboards
preconditionsenvironmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled before the component or system can be tested. May relate to the technical environment or the status of the test object. Also known as prerequisites or preparations
prioritythe level of importance assigned to defect, requirement, change, etc
professional testera person whose sole job is testing
qualitythe degree to which a component, system or process meets specified requirements and/or user/customer needs and expectations
quality assurance (QA)systematic monitoring and evaluation of various aspects of a component or system to maximize the probability that minimum standards of quality are being attained
reference environmenta condition where there is stable equilibrium, with all parts at rest relative to one another. No chemical reactions can occur between the environmental components. The reference environment acts as an infinite system, and is a sink and source for heat and materials
record and playback tooltest execution tool for recording and playback of test cases often used to support automation of regression testing. Also known as capture/playback
regression testinga test activity generally conducted in conjunction with each new release of the system, in order to detect defects that were introduced (or discovered) when prior defects were fixed
releasea new version of the system under test. The release can be either an internal release from developers to testers, or release of the system to the client
release managementa set of activities geared to create new versions of the complete system. Each release is identified by a distinct version number
release testinga type of non-exhaustive test performed when the system is installed in a new target environment, using a small set of test cases to validate critical functions without going into depth on any one of them
requirements managementa set of activities covering gathering, elicitation, documentation, prioritisation, quality assurance and management of requirements for an IT system
re-testinga test to verify that a previously reported defect has been corrected
retrospective meetinga meeting at the end of a project/a sprint during which the team members evaluate the work and learn lessons that can be applied to the next project or sprint
reviewa static test technique in which the reviewer reads a text in a structured way in order to find defects and suggest improvements. Reviews may cover requirements documents, test documents, code, and other materials, and can range from informal to formal
reviewera person involved in the review process that identifies and documents discrepancies in the item being reviewed. Reviewers are selected in order to represent different areas of expertise, stakeholder groups and types of analysis
riska factor that could result in future negative consequences. Is usually expressed in terms of impact and likelihood
risk-based testinga structured approach in which test cases are chosen based on risks. Test design techniques like boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning are risk-based. All testing ought to be risk-based
requesting party token (RPT)these are short-lived authorisation tokens or required access tokens. Within the PDP ecosystem, an RPT is a token that the pension finder service (the requesting party in this instance) will send to data providers, when an individual is trying to find their pensions via a pensions dashboard. RPTs are also used to request view data from providers and represent consent permissions for a specific PeI
software as a service (SaaS)a method of software delivery and licensing where users access software via a subscription, rather than buying and installing it on individual devices
scalability testinga component of non-functional testing, used to measure the capability of software to scale up or down in terms of its non-functional characteristics
scenarioa sequence of activities performed in a system, such as logging in, signing up a customer, ordering products, and printing an invoice. You can combine test cases to form a scenario especially at higher test levels
scruman iterative, incremental framework for project management commonly used with agile software development
session-based testingan approach to testing in which test activities are planned as uninterrupted, quite short, sessions of test design and execution, often used in conjunction with exploratory testing
severitythe degree of impact that a defect has on the development or operation of a component or system
site acceptance testing (SAT)acceptance testing carried out onsite at the client’s location, as opposed to the developer’s location. Testing at the developer’s site is called factory acceptance testing (FAT)
state transition testinga test design technique in which a system is viewed as a series of states, valid and invalid transitions between those states, and inputs and events that cause changes in state
static testingtesting performed without running the system. Document review is an example of a static test
stress testingtesting meant to assess how the system reacts to workloads (network, processing, data volume) that exceed the system’s specified requirements. Stress testing shows which system resource (eg memory or bandwidth) is first to fail
system integration testinga test level designed to evaluate whether a system can be successfully integrated with other systems (eg that the tested system works well with the HR system). May be included as part of system-level testing, or be conducted as its own test level in between system testing and acceptance testing
system testingtest level aimed at testing the complete integrated system. Both functional and non-functional tests are conducted
test casea structured test script that describes how a function or feature should be tested, including test steps, expected results preconditions and postconditions
test datainformation that completes the test steps in a test case with, for example, what values to input. In a test case where you add a customer to the system the test data might be customer name and address. Test data might exist in a separate test data file or in a database
test driven developmenta development approach in which developers write test cases before writing any code
test drivera software component (driver) used during integration testing in order to emulate (ie to stand in for) higher-level components of the architecture. For example, a test driver can emulate the user interface during tests
test environmentthe technical environment in which the tests are conducted, including hardware, software, and test tools. Documented in the test plan and/or test strategy
test executionthe process of running test cases on the test object
test levela group of test activities organised and carried out together in order to meet stated goals. Examples of levels of testing are component, integration, system, and acceptance test
test loga document that describes testing activities in chronological order
test objectthe part or aspects of the system to be tested. Might be a component, subsystem, or the system as a whole
test plana document describing what should be tested by whom, when, how, and why. The test plan is bounded in time, describing system testing for a particular version of a system, for example. The test plan is to the test manager what the project plan is to the project manager
test policya document that describes how an organisation runs its testing processes at a high level. It may contain a description of test levels according to the chosen life cycle model, roles and responsibilities, required/expected documents, etc
test processthe complete set of testing activities, from planning through to completion. The test process is usually described in the test policy
test reporta document that summarises the process and outcome of testing activities at the conclusion of a test period. Contains the test manager’s recommendations, which in turn are based on the degree to which the test activities attained its objectives. Also called test summary report
test runa group of test cases eg all the test cases for system testing with owner and end-date. Tests on one test level are often grouped into a series of tests, ie two-week cycles consisting of testing, re-testing, and regression testing. Each series can be a test run
test scriptautomated test case that the team creates with the help of a test automation tool. Sometimes also used to refer to a manual test case, or to a series of interlinked test cases
test specificationa document containing a number of test cases that include steps for preparing and resetting the system. In a larger system you might have one test specification for each subsystem
test strategydocument describing how a system is usually tested
test stuba test program used during integration testing in order to emulate lower-level components. For example, you can replace a database with a test stub that provides a hard-coded answer when it is called
test suitea group of test cases eg all the test cases for system testing
testinga set of activities intended to evaluate software and other deliverables to determine if that they meet requirements, to demonstrate that they are fit for purpose and to find defects
third-party componenta part of an IT system that is purchased as a packaged/complete product instead of being developed by the supplier/vendor
top-down integrationan integration test strategy, in which the team starts to integrate components at the top level of the system architecture
tokena token is a digital way to access something that is protected
test process improvement (TPI)a method of measuring and improving the organisation’s maturity with regard to testing
traceabilityanalysis of a prior chain of events, as well as the ability to follow an object such as a document or a program through various versions. Traceability enables you to determine the impact of a change in requirements, assuming you also develop a traceability matrix
traceability matrixa table showing the relationship between two or more baselined documents, such as requirements and test cases, or test cases and defect reports. Used to assess what impact a change will have across the documentation and software, for example, which test cases will need to be run when given requirements change
unit testingtest level that evaluates the smallest elements of the system. Also known as unit test, program test and module test
unit test frameworksoftware or class libraries that enable developers to write test code in their regular programming language. Used to automate component and integration testing
usabilitythe capability of the software to be understood, learned, used and attractive to the user
usability testinga test technique for evaluating a system’s usability. Frequently conducted by users performing tasks in the system while they describe their thought process out loud
use casea type of requirements document in which the requirements are written in the form of sequences that describe how various actors in the system interact with the system
user-managed access 2.0 (UMA)an open standard authorisation protocol that extends the widely adopt Oauth 2.0 protocol and gives resource owners (pension owners) the ability to manage access to their resources (pension data) by defining an access policy at centralised authorisation server which it enforces. The access policy to the pension owners pension data can be defined at a party-to-party basis (ie giving access to another person such as an IFA or MaPS guider) instead of giving access to an application
user-managed access resource server (UMA RS)within the UMA protocol, the resource servers hold the data that needs to be unlocked via the appropriate permissions. So within the PDP ecosystem, these are the pension providers servers, which hold the information about individuals’ pensions
V-modela software development lifecycle model that describes requirements management, development, and testing on a number of different levels
validationtests designed to demonstrate that the developers have built the correct system. Contrast with verification, which means testing that the system has been built correctly. A large number of validation activities take place during acceptance testing
verificationtests designed to demonstrate that the developers have built the system correctly. Contrast with validation, which means testing that the correct system has been built. A large number of verification activities take place during component testing
versioningvarious methods for uniquely identifying documents and source files, eg with a unique version number. Each time the object changes, it should receive a new version number. See also release management
waterfall modela sequential development approach consisting of a series of phases carried out one by one. This approach is not recommended due to a number of inherent problems
white box testinga type of testing in which the tester has knowledge of the internal structure of the test object. White box testers may familiarize themselves with the system by reading the program code, studying the database model, or going through the technical specifications. Contrast with black box testing